These are the notes which I presented on Sunday, the Paper itself is below.
PMMJ’s misguided use of 2TJ in Gal…
Purpose: Seeking a Paradigm which can explain Galatians
Motivation: Ceremonial laws, 2 Peoples of God
- They are the Revived “Ecclesia de circumcisioni” which is a parallel body of Jesus
- Act 11:2 So when Peter went up to Jerusalem, the circumcision party criticized him, saying,
- Act 15:1-2 But some men came down from Judea and were teaching the brothers, “Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.” (2) And after Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and debate with them, Paul and Barnabas and some of the others were appointed to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and the elders about this question.
- Gal 2:12 For before certain men came from James, he was eating with the Gentiles; but when they came he drew back and separated himself, fearing the circumcision party.
- Tit 1:10 For there are many who are insubordinate, empty talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision party.
- They keep the cleanliness-laws, and some ceremonial laws as Part of Continuing Validity of the Mosaic/Abrahamic Promises (not just cultural but religious identity)
- They are Dispensational Premillennials
- Dispensational Distinction between Israel and the Church (accuse us of “replacement theology” i.e. that the Church replaced Israel…, no future for Israel)
- That the New Testament Rivals to Paul were an orthodox group who should be emulated by Jews.
Rebuttle: Cut Down the Tree at its Root…
- Israel and Gentiles are one Corporate Church of Jesus Christ
- Covenant Body of Jesus: There is One Body (Eph 1:22-23) Bride (Eph 5:23) Temple (Eph 2:19-22)
- One Way of Salvation: Legal vital confusion
- Eph 2:11-18 Jesus Blood,
- 4:4 Spirit’s Call
- The Church is the Israel of God
- Gal 6:16…
- The Judaizers were Not Orthodox
- Second Temple Judaism was not Orthodox, therefore, they are based on bad ground… (Covenant Nomism: Circumcision and Lawkeeping, not Faith in Jesus, not for gentiles who remained uncircumcised!)
- This was Paul’s opponent in Galatians!
- 3:2, Works…
- 3:3, Flesh… refers to Circumcision, see Philipians 3:3, flesh not source of confidence, but Jesus’ circ was!
- (Has led many to see two opponents, but I see one, who fit the Second Temple Judaism model)
- Acts 15 portrays rebuttle/decided against this group
- The New Covenant Fulfilled the Old/did not destroy
- Ceremonial Laws were Restorative, thus not perpetual
- Eph 2:15, Jesus has restored peace, Heb 10:18
- Ceremonial Laws were Copies and Types, Heb 9:11, 23-24
- Jesus Replaced Aaron, Heb 7:22
- Ceremonial Laws were Restorative, thus not perpetual
Acts 16:1-3, Q: Why did Paul circumcise Timothy? Cultural Acceptance, Not Justification before God! This is therefore not a move which the PMJs should make, since it precludes justification by faith, and implies that one could be saved by circumcision! (see my article page 12)
Paper: A CRITIQUE OF POSTMISSIONARY MESSIANIC JUDAISM
by Benjamin Craig Rochester
April 29th 2010
The Christian church has held that there is both continuity and discontinuity between the administration of the law from Old Testament to New Testament. The nature of this discontinuity has been in contention since the early centuries of the Christian Church. This was exemplified the debate in the early 20th century with the rise of the movement known as Post Missionary Messianic Judaism. The most significant issue is the continued use of ceremonial rites from the Old Testament in the Christian Church.
After the formation of the Modern state of Israel in the 1940s, the world saw the return of many ethnic jews, many of whom were Christians, to the promised land. This has lead to a resurgence of questions concerning the relationship between Judaism and the Christian church. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, an early proponent of the Post Missionary Messianic Judaism movement argued that the ethnically Jewish Christian is allowed to keep the elements from the Law of Moses should he so desire. Though this was an insignificant section of Fruchtenbaum’s thesis, it has played out into a major ethical category for contemporary Post Missionary Messianic Judaism. Ceremonial and national laws of Israel are practiced in the Christian church.
More recently, Mark Kinzer, author of Postmissionary Messianic Judaism (Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2005), argued that, “Our survey of the New Testament teaching on Jewish practice (for Jews) has produced a surprising result. We have good grounds for upholding the view that the New Testament as a whole treats Jewish practice as obligatory for Jews.” He grounds this in the claim that there is a parallel body of the “Israel of God” which is separate from the gentile community in the Church of Jesus Christ; and has a separate mission from the gentile body. He went on to argue the nature of their mission is that Jewish believers are obligated to keep Torah in order to be faithful to the Covenant which God made with them as an ethnic people. Their explanation of this parallel corporate body and parallel mission is to keep these laws. Kinzer explained,
“Jewish practice is inherently corporate in nature. Circumcision is a social rite, performed by a trained official within the community. Sabbath observance requires social support and communal expression. The dietary laws require kosher meat processing and a network of related families following similar food customs. The practical need for communal support reinforces the underlying meaning of all Jewish practice, which is to be an effective sign marking Israel as a people set apart for God At the same time.”
Kinzer’s implication then is that the Jews are a separate/parallel religious body which must practice Old Testament rites in the New Testament era. They are a separate people with a separate mission. That mission and people are defined by these ornate ceremonial rites.
We contend that there is one body of Christ, and one church. The continual practice of the ceremonial laws is not supported by the New Testament. There are several reason for this. First, because there is no support for a legitimate parallel religious body in the New Testament, but one body and mission. Second, the Old Testament ceremonies were preparatory signs which signified the first coming of Christ (as Kinzer seems to be aware in his language in the above quote). Third, the rites of the New Testament replace the rights of the Old Testament since Jesus replaced Aaron, and thus must be met with vital faith.
The people of God are still called out of the world, but not in two parallel bodies but one only. To practice Old Testament rites now is to implicitly deny that Christ has already come because they were foreshadows of his reality. This will be demonstrated from the New Testament background of the ecclesia de circumcisione, the replacement of Aaron with Jesus, and the unified Jew/gentile salvation, single corpus Christi, and mission of the Christian Church.
There are two things which this paper wishes to avoid. First, this thesis does not wish to proclaim an over-realized eschatology, where the Law is viewed as totally obsolete in its function for the Christian church. “The moral law doth forever bind all.” The ceremonial and national laws in the Old Testament have moral significance. The moral does not cease to be moral. Rather, those principles of grace, justice, and love which reside in the Mosaic Law guide the Christian today. However, the use of those laws in Post Missionary Messianic Judaism circles is not in principle or testimony to Jesus, nor interpreted by New Testament methods (e.g. Mk 7) but in national and ceremonial identity only.
Second, this thesis wishes to avoid disunity with Post Missionary Messianic Judaism. The angels in heaven rejoice in the case that one lost sheep is found by the shepherd. Therefore, this paper contends that there is one body, salvation, and purpose for the Church of Jesus Christ. This denies the notion that there is a separate purpose for Israel and the Gentile Churches. Nevertheless, the purpose of this thesis is to bring the brethren into conformity to the New Testament’s teaching on the regulation of ceremonial rites and the identity of the Church.
The New Testament Background of the Ecclesia Ex Circumcisione
E.P. Sanders has argued that the way of salvation for Second Temple Judaism was twofold. There was a national identity as a Jew, and that justification was by general observance of the Law. That is to say, salvation was by works of the law, but that the ability to work was not open to everyone. These findings have been used for various means to prove a new perspective on Paul’s view of justification. Sander’s thesis concerning Paul is based on poor examination of the Reformation doctrines, and the illegitimate transfer of meaning from Second Temple Judaism to Paul. Nevertheless, his findings and thesis concerning second temple Judaism hold great explanatory power regarding the nature of the New Testament schism which occasioned the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15.
Post Missionary Messianic Judaism argues that they are the revived Party of the Circumcision. Who appear in Acts 15 and elsewhere in the New Testament. They take this to be a good thing, and precedent for their existence as a parallel body in contrast to the gentiles. We contend that this is neither a wise affinity, nor does it account for the decision of the council in Jerusalem. We urge the modern party of the circumcision to recant their views and re-join the Christian church. “Circumcision” was a sign that signified a school of thought. This school of thought was condemned by the New Testament. Therefore, this is not a party with whom Post Missionary Messianic Judaism should use to ground their case
Sander’s view demonstrated that the soteriology of Second Temple Judaism was national-covenant nomism. This salvation is two-fold. One is circumcised in order to enter the Covenant Nation (Israel), and then he is to remain in the Covenant by observing the Law. The relation has a legal and national, but no vital category, which Paul brought to bear in Ephesians 2 (see below). This accounts for the party of the circumcision in the New Testament record. Because the New Testament is that standard for life and practice in the Christian Church, not the works of E.P. Sanders, and because the thesis is simple enough to articulate without great elaboration, we now turn to the New Testament itself to see this pattern.
The Party of the Circumcision held to this Second Temple Judaistic view of ceremonial conversion, and then general law keeping. This should not be taken as a slight of hand way to accuse Post Missionary Messianic Judaism of teaching works salvation, but simple to deter them from citing the party of the circumcision as their claim to existence as a parallel body to the Christian church because it was decisively decided against in Galatians and the Jerusalem council in Acts 15. This supplements the main thesis by demonstrating that Post Missionary Messianic Judaism is not truly a parallel Church, and therefore has not special or distinct privileges from the rest of the Church of Jesus Christ (i.e. they should not be practicing the ceremonial law on the basis of being a parallel body with a concomitant parallel mission).
The New Testament church conciliar decided, and published against this party in Acts 15. Therefore, the use of this party of the circumcision is not a justifiable foundation for a “revived” “parallel” religious body. The New Testament deliberately mentioned the party of the circumcision with a condemning tone or argument several times in Acts 11:2, Acts 15:1-2, Galatians 2:12, elliptically in Ephesians 2:11, Titus 1:10, and Hebrews 7-10. The nature of the teaching fits with the idea of conversion of national/ethnic identity by circumcision (Acts 15:5). Luke recorded that these men were believing-Pharisees. The phrase “It is necessary to circumcise them and to direct them to observe the Law of Moses” aligns with the notion that Sanders argued was the view of the Pharisees. Therefore the New Testament witness decided against this in the Jerusalem council. Therefore, Post Missionary Messianic Judaism should not seek to justify a parallel body on this ground.
Galatians was most pointed against that party of the circumcision. 2:12 demonstrates that this is indeed the party of the circumcision. Paul mentioned that the notion behind this view was that those who were submitting themselves to circumcision were aligning themselves with a view of the Covenant of Grace that rejects justification by faith alone for the justification by works of the covenant people. Paul said, “And I testify again to every man who receives circumcision, that he is under obligation to keep the whole Law.” It is a covenant nomist salvation that this party was teaching, that is to where Paul assigned his opponents to an argumentum ad absurdum.
Taking circumcision was the first step into the Jewish nation, which lead to covenant life by general law-keeping. “Circumcision” then became the way to refer to this notion per synecdoche. Paul used the acceptance of circumcision as the sign of rejection of faith alone in Christ. He said, “Behold I, Paul, say to you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will be of no benefit to you.” (Gal. 5:2). This resulted in his conclusion, that taking circumcision led to rejection of Jesus; “You have been severed from Christ, you who are seeking to be justified by law; you have fallen from grace.” (v 4). Circumcision was a sign that signified a school of thought. This school of thought was condemned by the New Testament. Therefore, this is not a party with whom Post Missionary Messianic Judaism should use to ground their case.
Jesus the New Aaron, not the Church the new Israel
The charge has been levied against reformation theology that it is a “replacement theology” which means that the Jews as a people were replaced by the gentiles as the elect people of God. This suffers from inadequate understanding of the reformation view. What is being replaced is not the national ethnic people of the Jews, but the ceremonial typological administration of the Covenant of Grace. What is replaced is the Aaronic priesthood in the New Covenant by Jesus. This leads to the conclusion that the people of Israel, as far as they enjoyed the “circumcision of the heart,” were included in the Christian Church.
Hebrews 7 alludes to Psalm 110:4, the royal priest. The notion of a royal priesthood pointed forward to another priesthood which would replace the Levitical one. This pointed forward to an abrogation of the Levitical system when the new priesthood arose. Hebrews 7:12 says, “For when the priesthood is changed, of necessity there takes place a change of law also.” Hebrews interpreted Jesus as this royal priest (Psalm 110:4) who replaces the Levitical one (Heb 7-10). Hebrews explains that the perfection and perpetuity of Christ’s priesthood is such that we need, “But Jesus, on the other hand, because He continues forever, holds His priesthood permanently.” (v 24). The results are first, that Jesus replaces Aaron, and second there is a change of the Law. The place of the law is the most pertinent to the current thesis, though it cannot be disconnected from the Preisthood, since the Priest is the lawgiver (Heb 8:6). Jesus replaced Aaron, and thus the whole typological administration. Therefore the truth of the Old Testament signs continue to be true insofar as they preach the legal reconciliation between God and His people in Jesus. Nevertheless, they should not be continued, lest we imply that Jesus, the true priest, has not come.
There is a functional difference between moral and ceremonial laws. 1 Corintians 7:18-19 made a distinction between the “circumcision” and the “commandments.” Galatians 6:15 has a similar construction but the notion of “new creation” is contrasted instead of the “commandments.” This simply shows the distinction between universal moral principle and the ceremonial particulars. There is a functional difference between the moral and the ceremonial laws. The moral define what is good and what the lord requires from men, but the ceremonial restores and reconciles men to God. These ceremonies dramatize the mercy of God and the concept of reconciliation by death (Heb 9:15-18). This reconciliation has taken place by the death and resurrection of Jesus.
The function of the ceremonial in the Old Testament was preparation. If preparatory, then it is not functional now when the reality has come. The church has renewed ceremonies in the elements of worship, particularly baptism and communion. The ceremonial laws were temporary by design as foreshadows of the reconciliation to come. The result of this distinction is: though the Church retains the testimony of the ceremonial typology, and the moral principles which undergird many of them, nevertheless, the administration of them ended with the death and resurrection of Jesus. Jesus replaced the ceremony as the fulfillment of the signs which signified his coming.
Post Missionary Messianic Judaism holds that there are Jewish distinctives, which should be practiced by Jewish Christians, particularly, circumcision. However, circumcision was a sign of the coming Christ. Colossians 2:11 says, “And in Him you were also circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, in the removal of the body of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ.” The New Testament replaces circumcision with baptism (Rom 4:11-12). These signify the same legal entrance into the Covenant, but the flesh is no longer mutilated (Gen 17). The nature of the circumcision sign is that flesh needs to be killed in the circumcision of Christ in the future. Paul used the peritome of Christ to refer to the death of Christ. This is the signification of the sign. But baptism represents the accomplishment of the work and the union with Christ in death and resurrection. This demonstrates the distinction between Old Testament and New Testament administration of the ceremonial law.
The charge of “replacement theology” is true only insofar as it means that Jesus replaced Aaron as the mediator and lawgiver, not that the gentiles replaced Israel. Rather, the gentiles were engrafted into Israel. What changed was the legal administration of Israel under the new covenant royal priest, Jesus Christ.
One Salvation, One Body, One Purpose
Above we dealt with the legal administration of the Covenant. That is the ceremonial entrance by Baptism. However, another distinction which reformed Protestantism makes is the legal-vital-distinction. That is, the vital living element is offered as the way of conversion into the Covenant people of God. That is, regeneration and saving faith precede baptism for converts. The party of the circumcision, and Second Temple Judaism, had it the other way around. One was circumcised and then kept the law. There is not vital, but only legal. Post Missionary Messianic Judaism holds to justification by faith, but they do not make this legal vita distinction in their interpretation of the New Testament. However, it is imperative to understand this distinction in order to understand Paul’s apologetic against the sect.
The ethnic people were not replaced but added to by the gentiles who had faith in Jesus. The deciding factor of this proposition is the means of vital entrance into the Covenant of Grace, not by circumcision, nor baptism, but by faith alone. In the New Testament vital conversion preceded legal conversion. One must be justified by faith, and then receive the sign. Paul thus concludes this from the example of Abraham (Rom 4). Because there is one way of entering the covenant, then the people of God are made up of those who believe; not separate/parallel ethnic groups. Philippians 3:3, after calling the party of the circumcision, dogs, and workers of evil (v 2), described the “true circumcision” as those “who worship in the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh” (v 3). Colossians 2:11 makes a similar argument, that the qualification for being part of the covenant is “made without hands” by union with Jesus’ death.
Paul strikes at the vital entrance into the Covenant of Grace. The vital/legal distinction is a helpful way to understand the Covenant of Grace. Baptized infants in the New Testament, or circumcised infants in the Old Testament were part of the legal administration of the Covenant of Grace. They must then grow up to believe in the promises of the covenant by faith. Faith alone in Jesus’ vicarious death leads to a vital/living relationship to the Covenant Lord.
Paul’s argument follows: if one has the vital part of the Covenant then it is impossible to deny that he is also part of the true circumcision, even if not circumcised. This is the argument which Paul consistently made against the party of the circumcision in the New Testament. Romans 4 makes the argument by stating that Abraham was justified by faith (v 3), vitally entered into the Covenant of Grace before he was given the legal (vv 10-11). Thus Paul asked the rhetorical question, “Is this blessing then on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also?” This requires an affirmative answer. The uncircumcised also are entered into a vital relationship with God in the Abrahamic Covenant even if they have not been circumcised (vv 9-12). Thus the uncircumcised follow in the steps, along with the circumcised legal heirs, to enter the Abrahamic promise by faith (v 12).
Ephesians 2:11-22 strikes at the vitals against this animosity from the party of the circumcision. The gentiles are treated as the uncircumcision by those who are of the circumcision. Paul’s argued then that they were strangers from the “covenants of promise,” and the “commonwealth of Israel” (v 12). However, Paul went on to argue that the because of the blood of Christ, they are no longer far away but are brought near (v 13). This results in the breaking down of the “dividing wall” (v 14) and the reconciliation of both parties into “one new man” (v 15). This one salvation by faith, which leads to a vital relationship in the Covenant of Grace, leads to one body, with one purpose, namely to be the temple of God on earth (21-22). Jews and gentiles both are in the New Covenant with Jesus as the same high priest. There is one new man. This forbids the notion that there could be two parallel religious bodies in the New Covenant, because both enter by the same faith, in the same Lord, for the same purpose.
The most striking point in this passage is that Paul said that “you,” the primarily gentile recipients of the letter (Acts 19:1-5), are now “fellow citizens with the saints.” The new citizenship of the gentiles is the same as the “saints,” Jews. The conclusion is that the Jews and gentiles are not in parallel bodies but are in one body with one ceremonial practice.
Why Did Paul Circumcise Timothy?
Acts 16:1-3, on the heels of the Jerusalem council, Paul circumcised Timothy. This at first seems to lend some strength to the view that there is a parallel body of the party of the circumcision because Paul a practiced Jewish custom. If Paul circumcised Timothy then the rite was acceptable to do, and by extension is still acceptable as a religious rite for their parallel religious body. This however does not hold true when one considers the nature of the argument from the party of the circumcision compared to what is being argued now. They argued for circumcision as an entrance into the legal people of God in order to be able to be saved (Act 15:3). However, Post Missionary Messianic Judaism argues that they are the revived party of the circumcision. Simply, this is a move that they should not make if they want to hold to justification by faith alone.
The historical existence of this party in the New Testament does not set up a precedent for the existence of parallel body because it was decisively denounced by the council, the council was inscripturated for the sake of the church on this subject, and the teachings of party contradict the teachings of contemporary Post Missionary Messianic Judaism regarding justification by faith alone.
The way to interpret Paul’s action in chapter 16 then is in light of the immediate context where he circumcised Timothy as a cultural concession for the sake of preaching in the synagogues (v 3). Paul also was carrying the Apostolic Documents with him for the sake of admonishing the churches on that very point (v 4). Matthew Henry, in his typically elegant way, argued that Paul did so for different reason than did the party of the circumcision. Paul did so for cultural acceptance, not justification.
One could, hypothetically, argue that the circumcision of Timothy is the same reason one would do so today in Post Missionary Messianic Judaism. This contradicts the fact that they are a legitimate parallel body, and their purpose of circumcision is not that they would become all things to all men but that they would be able to remain culturally Jews. If any principle is taught in this passage it is that Christians ought to disregard their comfortable cultural preferences for the sake of sharing the Gospel with others. This is flatly contradicted by the total unwillingness of Post Missionary Messianic Judaism to unify in worship and ceremony with the broader Christian church.
There is a difference between culturally easing the Jews into the new way of administration of ceremony and saying that people are free to submit themselves to the law if they so wish. Post Missionary Messianic Judaism argues that these ceremonies are not only cultural but are indeed the law of God. However, if they are the law of God then they signify religious ideals as types and shadows. These rights are signs which signify something by analogy. Circumcision signifies union with Christ’s death (Phil 3:3, Col 2:11). However the rite of circumcision has been superseded by Baptism in the New Testament administration (Rom 4:1-12). Circumcision was a ceremonial rite which pointed forward to Jesus. If Paul circumcised Timothy to acculturate him for the sake of freely preaching the Gospel, then the act of circumcision in itself is not a sinful thing. It is the ceremonial signification of the future coming Christ, which implicitly denies that Christ has come.
This paper contended that the nature of the change between Old Testament and New Testament, as foreshadow and fulfillment, requires a change of the administration of the ceremonial system because it foreshadowed Christ. The result is that the Church of Jesus Christ is more simple in its administration and both transferable and applicable to many nations and cultures. It is the aim of this paper to lay the ethical foundation in the word of God for the right administration of Jewish Christian religious practice according to the New Testament. It is a wonderful thing that many Jewish people are becoming Christians. Nevertheless, the Christian church as a whole must abide by principles of periodicity in the administration of the sacraments.
The point of this project is not to degrade Jewish national heritage, but rather to demonstrate the single body, salvation, and purpose of the Jewish and gentile nations within the Church. The charge of “replacement theology” does not help this task because it is a mischaracterization of the facts. Aaron and the ceremonial law were replaced by the reality of what they signified. The Church did not replace Israel, but rather the church involves both Jews and gentiles in one body of believers.
Fruchtenbaum, Arnold, Hebrew Christianity: Its Theology, History & Philosophy, San Antonio, TX, Ariel Ministries, 1974
All Scripture quoted from the New American Standard Bible Updated, La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation, 1995
Kinzer, Mark Post Missionary Messianic Judaism: Redefining Christian Engagement with the Jewish People, Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2005
___________ “Postmissionary Messianic Judaism, Three Years Later: Reflections on a Conversation Just Begun” 2008 Lindsy Lectures, lecture manuscript available in PDF from Narkis.org
Rudolph, David J. “Messianic Jews and Christian Theology: Restoring an Historical Voice to the Contemporary Discussion” in Pro Ecclesia , Vol. 14, no. 1, (2005) 58-84
Venema, Cornelis, The Gospel of Free Acceptance in Christ: An Assessment of the Reformation and the New Perspective on Paul, Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 2006
Henry, Matthew, Commentary on the Whole Bible, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2000
Westminster Confession of Faith, Willow Grove, PA: Great Commission Publications, 2005
 Fruchtenbaum, Arnold, Hebrew Christianity: Its Theology, History & Philosophy ( San Antonio, TX: Ariel Ministries, 1974)
 Rudolph, David J. “Messianic Jews and Christian Theology: Restoring an Historical Voice to the Contemporary Discussion” in Pro Ecclesia Vol 14. No. 1, (2005), 58-84. Kinzer, Mark “Postmissionary Messianic Judaism: Three Years Later, reflections on a Discussion Just Begun” Lindsey Lectures Manuscript, Jerusalem, (2008), on page 5 uses “bilateral” ecclesiastical structure to ground Jewish use of Old Testament rites even when converted to Christianity.
 Kinzer, Mark, Postmissionary Messianic Judaism (Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2005) 95
 Ibid, 97
 Ibid, 152
 Westminster Confession of Faith, (Willow Grove, PA: Great Commission Publications, 2005) 19:4
 Westminster Confession of Faith, 19
 Venema, Cornelis, The Gospel of Free Acceptance in Christ, However controversial this debate may be, Cornelis Venema demonstrates that Sander’s findings are not in violation of the old perspective on Paul, but rather are a helpful way to clarify it. Venema credits the misconstruction of Paul to a poor understanding of Paul and the Reformation view of justification.
 Rudolph, David J. “Messianic Jews and Christian Theology: Restoring an Historical Voice to the Contemporary Discussion” in Pro Ecclesia Vol 14. No. 1, (2005), 58-84.
 Henry, Matthew, Commentary on the Whole Bible (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2000) Acts 16:1-3