1 Samuel 12 Translation and Notes

WTT 1 Sam. 12:1 וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הִנֵּה֙  שָׁמַ֣עְתִּי בְקֹֽלְכֶ֔ם לְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־אֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם לִ֑י וָאַמְלִ֥יךְ עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם מֶֽלֶךְ׃
And Samuel Said to all Israel Behold, I listened to your voice to all which you said to me, and I caused a king to rule over you as king.
[8:7 10:19, this request was answered by God as if to answer a fool according to his folly and give them over to their sin of rejection of the Holy Spiritual and supernatural nature of God’s reign by his word from heaven.]

WTT 1 Sam. 12:2 וְעַתָּ֞ה הִנֵּ֥ה הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ׀ מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ לִפְנֵיכֶ֗ם  וַאֲנִי֙ זָקַ֣נְתִּי וָשַׂ֔בְתִּי וּבָנַ֖י הִנָּ֣ם אִתְּכֶ֑ם וַאֲנִי֙ הִתְהַלַּ֣כְתִּי לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם מִנְּעֻרַ֖י עַד־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃
And now, behold the king who is gone forth before you [hithpael ptc.. gone forth i.e., by God’s command and initiative]. And I even I am aged  and greyheaded, and my sons behold them they are [predicate sentence] with you. I even I am gone forth before you [same implicit initiative of God] from my youth until this very day.
– Samuel highlights the calling he had to walk as a public officer of Israel by the initiative of God in the use of the passive, and in th fact that he has done so since his youth, but not the time of his tenure is coming to a close.

WTT 1 Sam. 12:3 הִנְנִ֣י עֲנ֣וּ בִי֩ נֶ֙גֶד יְהוָ֜ה וְנֶ֣גֶד מְשִׁיח֗וֹ  אֶת־שׁוֹר֩׀ מִ֙י לָקַ֜חְתִּי וַחֲמ֧וֹר מִ֣י לָקַ֗חְתִּי וְאֶת־מִ֤י עָשַׁ֙קְתִּי֙ אֶת־מִ֣י רַצּ֔וֹתִי וּמִיַּד־מִי֙ לָקַ֣חְתִּי כֹ֔פֶר וְאַעְלִ֥ים עֵינַ֖י בּ֑וֹ וְאָשִׁ֖יב לָכֶֽם׃

Here am I [idiom- behold me = like a child says to parent respectfully when called to do an act of obedience], answer to me with a witness, namely the Lord, and a witness, namely His Anointed one. [these are appositions, the Witnesses who judge Samuel are the Lord and His anointed, cf 2:10, prior to the kingship, he still spoke of the reality to which the anointed pointed, the reality of the anointed is in view here, not Saul as the typological anointed] Whose cattle have I taken? And, whose donkey have I taken? Ans whom have I oppressed; Whom have I crushed? And from the hand of whom have I taken a bribe so [waw conjunction but it is so here] that I hid my eyes to him [i.e., to his sins]? So then I will cause it to return to you [2plural- to you all].

WTT 1 Sam. 12:4 וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ לֹ֥א עֲשַׁקְתָּ֖נוּ וְלֹ֣א רַצּוֹתָ֑נוּ  וְלֹֽא־לָקַ֥חְתָּ מִיַּד־אִ֖ישׁ מְאֽוּמָה׃
And they said, “you have not oppressed us, nor have you crushed us, nor have you taken from the hand of a man anything.” [his sons had though, an they are in the convocation, so I wonder how this is functioning. It seems to be a personal individual vindication.]
WTT 1 Sam. 12:5 וַיֹּ֙אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֜ם עֵ֧ד יְהוָ֣ה בָּכֶ֗ם וְעֵ֤ד  מְשִׁיחוֹ֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה כִּ֣י לֹ֧א מְצָאתֶ֛ם בְּיָדִ֖י מְא֑וּמָה וַיֹּ֖אמֶר עֵֽד׃ פ

And he said to them, “may the Lord witness against you, and his messiah witness this very day, for neither did you find anything in my hand, nor  did a witness speak. [“nor”, instead of making a new sentence with and… the witness is the subject of the verb. It is masculine singular. It is in position to be the subject of the verb.].”
-the witness is a prosecutorial role in Israel, they become a prosecutor and realize  that they are bringing justice. No witness spoke against Samuel, so it shows that he did justice  and executed his calling with the right deportment.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:6 וַיֹּ֥אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אֶל־הָעָ֑ם יְהוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר  עָשָׂה֙ אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹ֔ן וַאֲשֶׁ֧ר הֶעֱלָ֛ה אֶת־אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃
And Samuel said to the people, “It was [implied predicate sentence] The Lord who made Moses and Aaron, and it was he who caused your fathers to go up from the land of Egypt…
– Here Samuel strike as the inititive of God again.

WTT 1 Sam. 12:7 וְעַתָּ֗ה הִֽתְיַצְּב֛וּ וְאִשָּׁפְטָ֥ה אִתְּכֶ֖ם לִפְנֵ֣י  יְהוָ֑ה אֵ֚ת כָּל־צִדְק֣וֹת יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה אִתְּכֶ֖ם וְאֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶֽם׃

“…and now you are caused to stand, and I shall plead your case [niphil of shaphat, means to plead the case with the judge- who is God in this case] before the Lord, with [use of  אֵ֚ת as a preposition like en in greek, with] all the righteous acts of the Lord which he did with you and with your fathers.”
-Samuel is with them, the Lord is with them, as he was their Fathers, not against them. This is the assurance that God is their God.

WTT 1 Sam. 12:8 כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א יַעֲקֹ֖ב מִצְרָ֑יִם וַיִּזְעֲק֤וּ  אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶם֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּשְׁלַ֙ח יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹ֗ן וַיּוֹצִ֤יאוּ אֶת־אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם וַיֹּשִׁב֖וּם בַּמָּק֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃
When Jacob came to Egypt and your fathers cried to the Lord, The lord sent Moses and Aaron and your fathers went forth from Egypt and he caused them to dwell in this place….
—this whole verse is a relative clause to what comes next…

WTT 1 Sam. 12:9 וַֽיִּשְׁכְּח֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּמְכֹּ֣ר אֹתָ֡ם  בְּיַ֣ד סִֽיסְרָא֩ שַׂר־צְבָ֙א חָצ֜וֹר וּבְיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וּבְיַד֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מוֹאָ֔ב וַיִּֽלָּחֲמ֖וּ בָּֽם׃
And they forgot the Lord their God and he sold them into the hand f Sisera prince of war of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab, and they made war with them.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:10 וַיִּזְעֲק֤וּ אֶל־יְהוָה֙ (וַיֹּאמֶר) [וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ]  חָטָ֔אנוּ כִּ֤י עָזַ֙בְנוּ֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה וַנַּעֲבֹ֥ד אֶת־הַבְּעָלִ֖ים וְאֶת־הָעַשְׁתָּר֑וֹת וְעַתָּ֗ה הַצִּילֵ֛נוּ מִיַּ֥ד אֹיְבֵ֖ינוּ וְנַעַבְדֶֽךָּ׃
And they cried to the Lord and they said, we have sinnned for we have abandoned the Lord and we served the Baalim and the Ashteroth and now cause to save us [hiphil imperative + 1p suffix] from the hand of our enemies and we shall serve you.
—the tutorial nature of the national covenant was that they had to be obedient and serve the lord to remain in the land, and thus the messiah would ultimately fulfill the type with regard to the new creation.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:11 וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח יְהוָה֙ אֶת־יְרֻבַּ֣עַל וְאֶת־בְּדָ֔ן  וְאֶת־יִפְתָּ֖ח וְאֶת־שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל וַיַּצֵּ֙ל אֶתְכֶ֜ם מִיַּ֤ד אֹֽיְבֵיכֶם֙ מִסָּבִ֔יב וַתֵּשְׁב֖וּ בֶּֽטַח׃
And the Lord sent Jerubaal and Bedan, and Yephthah and Samuel and He saved you from the hand of your enemies who surrounded, and they dwelt in security.
—Notice the initiative in rescue is the Lord, again. same as throughout the whole book. 2:9-10. The function of this rehearsal of the history is to show the way the Lord’s Kingdom works, he give the kingdom to his people supernaturally, not by human might.

WTT 1 Sam. 12:12 וַתִּרְא֗וּ כִּֽי־נָחָ֞שׁ מֶ֣לֶךְ בְּנֵֽי־עַמּוֹן֮ בָּ֣א  עֲלֵיכֶם֒ וַתֹּ֣אמְרוּ לִ֔י לֹ֕א כִּי־מֶ֖לֶךְ יִמְלֹ֣ךְ עָלֵ֑ינוּ וַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם מַלְכְּכֶֽם׃
And You-alll saw that Nahash, King of the sons of Amon, came against you and you-all said to me, “No! but a King shall rule over us, and the Lord your God was your king”
—-here the invasion of Nahash was the precipitating factor in the whole narrative. They feared the Ammonites and thus they asked for a human king because they did not trust the Lord to deliver his people supernaturaly. They had to lear that it is not by might that  aman prevails. see 8:7, and 10:19
WTT 1 Sam. 12:13 וְעַתָּ֗ה הִנֵּ֥ה הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּחַרְתֶּ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר  שְׁאֶלְתֶּ֑ם וְהִנֵּ֙ה נָתַ֧ן יְהוָ֛ה עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם מֶֽלֶךְ׃
And now, look, the king whom you chose, for whom you asked, and behold The Lord gave a king over you.
—The emphasis here, marked by the word behold, is for the purpose of convicting them of the lack of faith, so that they would realize that they ought to, even with a human king, recognize that this chnages nothing about the nature of the kingdom. God still rules from heaven by his word and Spirit, and the king only should reinforce that theme as a type of the anointed one to come.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:14 אִם־תִּֽירְא֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֗ה וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙  וּשְׁמַעְתֶּ֣ם בְּקֹל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א תַמְר֖וּ אֶת־פִּ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וִהְיִתֶ֣ם גַּם־אַתֶּ֗ם וְגַם־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָלַ֣ךְ עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אַחַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃
If you fear the Lord and you serve Him and listen to His voice, and not you all rebel against the mouth of the Lord, and you shall [must] be, indeed you shall [note this parallelism as this intensified emphasis here of their need to fear and obey the Lord], and indeed your King who rules-as-king over you after the Lord your God.
—The Lord is the one served, not the king, as they serv the king as a stand in type for the coming King, the Lord’s Anointed.
—notice the mouth of the Lord, his world rules over them. Remember back in c. 10 how the “Law of the King” according to Samuel was placed before the Lord. The King too is ruled by the word of God.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:15 וְאִם־לֹ֤א תִשְׁמְעוּ֙ בְּק֣וֹל יְהוָ֔ה וּמְרִיתֶ֖ם  אֶת־פִּ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וְהָיְתָ֧ה יַד־יְהוָ֛ה בָּכֶ֖ם וּבַאֲבֹתֵיכֶֽם׃
If your do not listen to the voice of the Lord your God and rebel against the mouth of the Lord, and the hand of the Lord shall be against you, even as it was against your fathers.
—they are to learn from the lessons of the past that the Lord called them to obedience, and he will deliver, and if they rebel, the judgment will com from his hand to teach and discipline them as well. They are not under a strict works principle, but rather they are under the fatherly discipline of the Lord while in the land. They may seek his pardon and be forgiven, as was implied in the name of God proclaimed o the Mt to Moises in Exodus 34. The parallel to Christ breaks down in that sense, because he was under a strict works principle. A strict works principle simply could not be kept by sinful man. Therefore, as Paul says in Galatians 3, this is a law added to the covenant alreayd ratified by the Lord to Abraham.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:16 גַּם־עַתָּה֙ הִתְיַצְּב֣וּ וּרְא֔וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר  הַגָּד֖וֹל הַזֶּ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עֹשֶׂ֖ה לְעֵינֵיכֶֽם׃
Indeed not You shall be stood [hitpael Iv] and see [Qal Iv] this great word which the Lord makes before your eyes.
–they have to stand and see the sign coming in a moment to prove that the Lord really speaks this word. It is the very word of God.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:17 הֲל֤וֹא קְצִיר־חִטִּים֙ הַיּ֔וֹם אֶקְרָא֙  אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וְיִתֵּ֥ן קֹל֖וֹת וּמָטָ֑ר וּדְע֣וּ וּרְא֗וּ כִּֽי־רָעַתְכֶ֤ם רַבָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר עֲשִׂיתֶם֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה לִשְׁא֥וֹל לָכֶ֖ם מֶֽלֶךְ׃ ס
Is it not the harvest of wheat today? [a time without rain] I will call to the Lord and He will give sounds and rain [is this an idiom for thunder? Psalm 18:14(13 english) seems to make thunder an analogy to the voice of the Lord coming from heaven. It is not a literally thunder but rather the voice of God and his authority that is heard. also rememebr that the same thing happened to the Philistines back in c. 7:10, Now Samuel was offering up the burnt offering, and the Philistines drew near to battle against Israel. But athe LORD thundered with a great 1thunder on that day against the Philistines and bconfused them, so that they were 2routed before Israel. (1Sa 7:10 NAU). In this case the thunder was the hebrew word for thunder, not the sound, or voice qol.] and you will know and perceive that your evil is severe which you have done before the eyes of the Lord to ask for yourselves a king.
—God saw the request for a king as a great evil in that it was apostasy from the confession of faith in 2:9-10. c.f. 10:19, 8:7
—The Voice of God on the clouds of heaven, not just thunder will prove to them the severity of their sin.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:18 וַיִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּתֵּ֧ן יְהוָ֛ה  קֹלֹ֥ת וּמָטָ֖ר בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיִּירָ֙א כָל־הָעָ֥ם מְאֹ֛ד אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה וְאֶת־שְׁמוּאֵֽל׃
And Samuel called to the Lord and the Lord gave voices and rain on that day. And all the people exceedingly feared the Lord and Samuel
–the sign spoken of now come about.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:19 וַיֹּאמְר֙וּ כָל־הָעָ֜ם אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל הִתְפַּלֵּ֧ל  בְּעַד־עֲבָדֶ֛יךָ אֶל־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ וְאַל־נָמ֑וּת כִּֽי־יָסַ֤פְנוּ עַל־כָּל־חַטֹּאתֵ֙ינוּ֙ רָעָ֔ה לִשְׁאֹ֥ל לָ֖נוּ מֶֽלֶךְ׃ ס
And all the people said to Samuel, “Pray on behalf of your servants to the Lord your God [so suddenly when he is speaking with voices from heaven and rain he is MY God?] and may not we die for we added over all our sins this evil, because [Lamed +infinitive construct = reason infinitive, not purpose?] we asked for ourselves a king.
—they understood that they had really been convicted not just before man, but God for rejecting the true believing confession o fthe kingdom. They looked to man, not God, and God proved that they must look to God and not man here with this sign.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:20 וַיֹּ֙אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֤ל אֶל־הָעָם֙ אַל־תִּירָ֔אוּ  אַתֶּ֣ם עֲשִׂיתֶ֔ם אֵ֥ת כָּל־הָרָעָ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את אַ֗ךְ אַל־תָּס֙וּרוּ֙ מֵאַחֲרֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֥ם אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶֽם׃
And Samuel said to the people, “Do not you yourselves fear, you performed all this evil, surely you shall not turn aside from after the Lord, and you shall serve the Lord with all your heart.”
—Samuel calls them to the right resonse of God asserting his kingdom, namely, not turning away from serving him but sering him with all of their hearts.
The Lord demands a mind and body and whole life totally devoted to his service. This religious rule is not just the rule of a king on earth, who may rule behavior, but not the heart, the Lord requires complete mental obedience and service.
Point: Serve the Lord with all your heart.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:21 וְלֹ֖א תָּס֑וּרוּ כִּ֣י׀ אַחֲרֵ֣י הַתֹּ֗הוּ אֲשֶׁ֧ר  לֹֽא־יוֹעִ֛ילוּ וְלֹ֥א יַצִּ֖ילוּ כִּי־תֹ֥הוּ הֵֽמָּה׃
And you shall not turn aside for to pursue after void things [tohu-reffering to things that ultimately will not last – here is the perspective that right now we ought to seek those things which last forever, the kingdom and righteousness] which do not profit, and do not save, for void they are.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:22 כִּ֠י לֹֽא־יִטֹּ֤שׁ יְהוָה֙ אֶת־עַמּ֔וֹ בַּעֲב֖וּר  שְׁמ֣וֹ הַגָּד֑וֹל כִּ֚י הוֹאִ֣יל יְהוָ֔ה לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת אֶתְכֶ֛ם ל֖וֹ לְעָֽם׃
For the Lord will not abandon His people for the sake of His Great Name [the name of the Lord in Exodus 34, he does not go back on his covenant as explained in and reflective of his name, Merciful, forgiving iniquity and pardoning sin], for the Lord is well-pleased [in his electing choice within his cousel] to make you to himself for a possesed-people [lamed+people = possessive of the people]
—The Lord pardons sin and firgives iniquity, but those who do not seek it, he will by no means justify. It is the basis of this name in Exodus 34 that he established the covenant promise to Abraham and repeated it in the Mosaic covenant.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:23 גַּ֣ם אָנֹכִ֗י חָלִ֤ילָה לִּי֙ מֵחֲטֹ֣א לַֽיהוָ֔ה  מֵחֲדֹ֖ל לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֣ל בַּעַדְכֶ֑ם וְהוֹרֵיתִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ הַטּוֹבָ֖ה וְהַיְשָׁרָֽה׃
Indeed I pipeward to me [idiom – may it never be for me], that I should cause sin against the Lord [hiphil participles are in periphrasis with theאָנֹכִ֗י] from [i.e., a sin rooted in his ceasing to pray] ceasing to pray on your behalf, but that I would point [like an arrow] you to go in the good and straight road.
—the voational walking as one tuaght by the prophet as a disciple is to be sent in a path like an arrow aimed at a target at the right moral path. this is the goal of the prophet Samuel, and ought to be for all who teach God’s word in the authority of the office of preacher.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:24 אַ֣ךְ׀ יְר֣אוּ אֶת־יְהוָ֗ה וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֥ם אֹת֛וֹ  בֶּאֱמֶ֖ת בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י רְא֔וּ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־הִגְדִּ֖ל עִמָּכֶֽם׃
Surely you shall fear the LORD and shall serve Him in truth with all your heart, for you see what great things he does with you.
—the proof of their calling to serve the Lord and fear his discipline was the sign they saw just now and the various historic events of the historia salutis showing the work of God to save his people.
WTT 1 Sam. 12:25 וְאִם־הָרֵ֖עַ תָּרֵ֑עוּ גַּם־אַתֶּ֥ם גַּֽם־מַלְכְּכֶ֖ם  תִּסָּפֽוּ׃ פ
And if you shall do evil evil, indeed even you, indeed even if the king, then you-all shall be swept away.
—Sanction for the life of the people in the land, warned that the Lord will discipline his people if they do not seek forgiveness.

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