1 Corinthians 16 Notes, commentary, translation, and questions
1-12, Contributions, Travel Plans, and Visitors
BGT 1 Co. 16:1 Περὶ δὲ τῆς λογείας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους ὥσπερ διέταξα ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας, οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιήσατε.
Now concerning the collection [VGNT logei,a @ 1Co 16:1 or contribution above the normal giving. That is for a special purpose. This is a hapax legomena. “λογεία is used for irregular local contributions as opposed to regular taxes, “] which are for the saints [subordinate clause is a predicate sentence] even as I commanded to the churches of Galatia; in this way even [intensification] you shall do.
Q: Is the offering an element of worship?
A: Yes, because by good and necessary consequence it may be deduced here. 1)They made the contributions on the sabbath. 2) these had religious import (sharing in koinonia with the Jews in Jerusalem), and thus were to be done on the Sabbath (v.2). For someting to have religious import and be done on the Lord’s day, it should then be done in the worship service [cf. Acts 4-5]. 3) it may be objected that these are not the normal contributions to the poor or ot the church, therefore they should not bear upon the ethic of normal offerings being an element. Ans: The form here is the contributions, not tithes or offerings, yet the susbtance of the argument remains. This is the form substance disctinction. Also, if the greater is done on the Lord’s Day, namely special offerings, then the lesser (or less special and perspicuous, not that our regular offerings are of less spiritual import) too should be done on the Lord’s day, for even stronger reason.
BGT 1 Co. 16:2 κατὰ μίαν σαββάτου ἕκαστος ὑμῶν παρ᾽ ἑαυτῷ τιθέτω θησαυρίζων ὅ τι ἐὰν εὐοδῶται, ἵνα μὴ ὅταν ἔλθω τότε λογεῖαι γίνωνται.
During one sabbath each of you before himself [para + dative = before, i.e, privately] set aside of the treasury whatever he may have been prosper[by the Lord, passive voice] so that not when I come shall a contribution come about.
Q: Why does paul want the contributions to come about prior to his arrival? Is it for speed? for lack of pressure and rather their freewill offering in a pure heart?
BGT 1 Co. 16:3 ὅταν δὲ παραγένωμαι, οὓς ἐὰν δοκιμάσητε, δι᾽ ἐπιστολῶν τούτους πέμψω ἀπενεγκεῖν τὴν χάριν ὑμῶν εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ·
But, when I come, whomever you approve-to-be-worthy [κιμάζω: to regard something as being worthwhile or appropriate – ‘to regard as worthwhile, to think of as appropriate.'” – The word dokimazo usually has to do with proving, understanding as true through practice and experience and experimentation in life. Here it refers to the context of persons approved as agents of the church who are worthy] i will send them officially by these letters, in order to carry [purpose infinitive] your gift to Jerusalem.
Q: What letters did paul send? Was it pertaining to the offering?
A: the near demonstrative pronoun toutos – these letters- implies this letter which Paul has written, namely 1 Corinthians. He would send the letter to Jerusalem along with the Corinthian ambassadors. Otherwise he would not have indicated it.
Q: Can 1 Corinthians be called plural “these letters?”
A: Yes. For obvious reasons.
BGT 1 Co. 16:4 ἐὰν δὲ ἄξιον ᾖ τοῦ κἀμὲ πορεύεσθαι, σὺν ἐμοὶ πορεύσονται.
and if it is fitting for even me to go, they shall go with me.
BGT 1 Co. 16:5 Ἐλεύσομαι δὲ πρὸς ὑμᾶς ὅταν Μακεδονίαν διέλθω· Μακεδονίαν γὰρ διέρχομαι,
Now I will come [future] to you when I have completely passed through Macedonia [Aorist], for I am currently passing through Macedonia.
BGT 1 Co. 16:6 πρὸς ὑμᾶς δὲ τυχὸν παραμενῶ ἢ καὶ παραχειμάσω, ἵνα ὑμεῖς με προπέμψητε οὗ ἐὰν πορεύωμαι.
Q: Why go from future, to simple past, to current progressive in v 5?
A: perhaps he has plans to do a preaching circuit and they what he means.
But it may happen that I will remain with you, or even I will stay the whole winter, in order that you may send me forth wherever I may go [Paul may be sent from Corinth to the next phase of Missionary journeys. His former base was in Antioch, and then Ephesus from whom he wrote to Corinth, now potentially Corinth, from whom he wrote to Rome as he heads further West in his territory, and later Rome, to whom he wrote from Corinth, and then writes to Rome that he intends to go on to Spain.]
BGT 1 Co. 16:7 οὐ θέλω γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἄρτι ἐν παρόδῳ ἰδεῖν, ἐλπίζω γὰρ χρόνον τινὰ ἐπιμεῖναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐὰν ὁ κύριος ἐπιτρέψῃ.
For I do not wish to see [infinitive verbal complement] you now just in passing through, for I hope a long duration of time which I may remain on before you, if the Lord permits.
Notice here Paul speaks of permission in God as active. Even if God only permits things, they are still in His sovereignty. This is not a bare permission, but an active one, where God is fully in control.
Q: If God “permits” things is He sovereign still over all things?
BGT 1 Co. 16:8 ἐπιμενῶ δὲ ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἕως τῆς πεντηκοστῆς·
But I am remaining in Ephesus until Pentecost.
Q: DOes this mean the Apostle still practices the OT calendar?
A: Possibly in some cases as a citizen of Jerusalem. This is a transitional period between epochs. Also It is posiible that he just means to indicate the date. Nothing can be settled here without going beyind the text. It does seem that the date is only significant as a a time indicator, not religious significance, because he tarried so long as Ephesus. in the next verse he explains the reason.
BGT 1 Co. 16:9 θύρα γάρ μοι ἀνέῳγεν μεγάλη καὶ ἐνεργής, καὶ ἀντικείμενοι πολλοί.
For a door had opened to me greatly and powerfully, and many are being adversarial.
Perhaps the reason Paul is still in Ephesus is because the door is open, and he wants it to shut on him before he leaves. He seems to deduce that there is good to be done, and though he makes plans to leave in the far future, it may be the case that he has to leave earlier, which ends up being the case as the polytheistic guild of idol makers get him kicked out of town.
BGT 1 Co. 16:10 Ἐὰν δὲ ἔλθῃ Τιμόθεος, βλέπετε, ἵνα ἀφόβως γένηται πρὸς ὑμᾶς· τὸ γὰρ ἔργον κυρίου ἐργάζεται ὡς κἀγώ·
But if Timothy may [subjunctive] come, you all must watch out, so that He may [subjuntive – posiibility, not purpose – he may come or Paul may come, but either way it will be with apostolic feirceness] come to you without fear[is this Timothy’s fearlessness or does it refer to them not causing him fear. It seems better that the former, for he is compared with Paul as being a worker of the Lord, who did not give any room for fear in his cohort, as is evidenced in the conflict between Paul and Barnabas regarding Mark, who for fear abandoned them in Troas, Acts 15:40something, but the plain reading of the text is the other view, that they were not to be a cause of fear for him because of verse 11 and how they may potentially be hostile to him], for he does the work of the Lord, as do I.
BGT 1 Co. 16:11 μή τις οὖν αὐτὸν LN evxouqene,w . προπέμψατε δὲ αὐτὸν ἐν εἰρήνῃ, ἵνα ἔλθῃ πρός με· ἐκδέχομαι γὰρ αὐτὸν μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν.
Therefore, let not one despise [or disallow – “Ian Miller, I despise! I despise!”- i.e, to reject and disallow because of hatred.] him, but send Him in peace, so that he may come to me, for I await him along with the brethren [i.e., Paul is waiting for Timothy in Ephesus, and he may pass through Corinth to get there]
BGT 1 Co. 16:12 Περὶ δὲ Ἀπολλῶ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, πολλὰ παρεκάλεσα αὐτόν, ἵνα ἔλθῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν· καὶ πάντως οὐκ ἦν θέλημα ἵνα νῦν ἔλθῃ· ἐλεύσεται δὲ ὅταν εὐκαιρήσῃ.
But concerning Apollo your brother, I called him much that he may come to you with the brethren. [i.e., those who are carrying the letter of 1 Corinthians. He sent their favorite teacher to show solidarity with them and Him] and altogether he was not willing to come now, but he will come at good-timing.[Apollo is enjoying Ephesus and does not want to leave. The Scotch and cigars alon with Paul and the the Ephesians at the School of tyrranus after lecture time must be enticing, compared to the teetoteling times with the fundys in Corinth.]
13-14, Call to Walk in the Christian Life
BGT 1 Co. 16:13 Γρηγορεῖτε, στήκετε ἐν τῇ πίστει, ἀνδρίζεσθε, κραταιοῦσθε.
Watch out. Stand your ground [i.e., doctrinally stand your ground] in the faith. Be men. Be mighty.
BGT 1 Co. 16:14 πάντα ὑμῶν ἐν ἀγάπῃ γινέσθω.
Make all of your doings happen [ginomai imperative] in love.
Q:Why is Paul such a chauvanist?
15-18, Call to Submit to the Ministry
BGT 1 Co. 16:15 Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί· οἴδατε τὴν οἰκίαν Στεφανᾶ, ὅτι ἐστὶν ἀπαρχὴ τῆς Ἀχαΐας καὶ εἰς διακονίαν τοῖς ἁγίοις ἔταξαν ἑαυτούς·
Now, I call you, brethren, (You are aware the household of Stephana that they were [historical present] the firstfruits of Axaia [predicate sentence], even unto service to the saints they have arranged themselves.) [parenthetical phrase introducing the specific man in mind]
Q: Why is the household of the minister set apart for the service of the people?
Q: What relationship do the family members have to the ministry?
Q: is there a problem with nepotism and father sons succession in churches?
BGT 1 Co. 16:16 ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς ὑποτάσσησθε τοῖς τοιούτοις καὶ παντὶ τῷ συνεργοῦντι καὶ κοπιῶντι.
So even you submit to these ones, even to all who are co-laborers [Substantive participle] and who are toilers [substantive participle in parallel with the first]
BGT 1 Co. 16:17 χαίρω δὲ ἐπὶ τῇ παρουσίᾳ Στεφανᾶ καὶ Φορτουνάτου καὶ Ἀχαϊκοῦ, ὅτι τὸ ὑμέτερον ὑστέρημα οὗτοι ἀνεπλήρωσαν·
But I rejoice upon the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatou and Axaikou, because these ones filled up your-great [superlative] lack.
BGT 1 Co. 16:18 ἀνέπαυσαν γὰρ τὸ ἐμὸν πνεῦμα καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν. ἐπιγινώσκετε οὖν τοὺς τοιούτους.
For they gave my soul rest [emotional rest needed because of the way the Corinthian correspondence was going. Presumably these men came from Corinth and encouraged Paul that things are not so bad as they seem.] and yours. Therefore, come to know [come to recognize what they are doing in order to emulate them, not that they are just virtue signaling. ] those who are such as these [like a substantive ptc., this has an article, and so I take it to mean those who are such as these, instead of the rigid literal, “those these”].
Q: What about them was so great that the apoostle wanted them to recognize what they are doing as good behavior?
BGT 1 Co. 16:19 Ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῆς Ἀσίας. ἀσπάζεται ὑμᾶς ἐν κυρίῳ πολλὰ Ἀκύλας καὶ Πρίσκα σὺν τῇ κατ᾽ οἶκον αὐτῶν ἐκκλησίᾳ.
The churches of Asia salute you. They salute you much in the Lord, Akulas and Prisca, with those in the church according to their houshold [note that the church is define as those according to their specific household. Much of the “house church” rhetoric as being the Apsotolic model does not fit here. Rather, the Apostle points to the household, which is a little church. If he wanted to talk about a sort of house church movement he would not have been so specific here with the word Kata. The translations do not do justice to this nuance, espacially by saying the church that is “in” their house. There is no in but according to kata.]
Q: does the church that is in there house refer to their household or a house church style gathering?
Q: Do we import too many preconcieved notions comfortable to the house church mission movement in china and elsewhere here where the real meaning is missed?
Q: How are households churches? What are their structures? Who are the officers? What religious rights and duties are there?
BGT 1 Co. 16:20 ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς οἱ ἀδελφοὶ πάντες. Ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν φιλήματι ἁγίῳ.
All the brethren salute you. Greet one another with the holy kiss.
Q: Ought we do this today as a religious practice? How do we determine if it is an element?
A: No, because there is a difference between a sensual and a holy greeting kiss. The plain reading here is that Paul is saying to greet each other by the normal custom in the culture, but don’;t make it all weird.
It could be argued that because he uses the word “Holy” it has religious import, but the moral holiness not ceremonial holiness seems to be the plain reading. If it does mean holy in the sense of a ceremonial act of kissing, there is nowhere else in the ible to support it as an OT religious act, nor as anything more than the mediteranean custom. It does show that physical greetings are not entirely wrong, as the pharisaical fundys will sometimes deny all physical contact as wrong. That is the way of the legalist who is still in obligation to their sin, and is unable to converse and interact with people without everything being sexual. Thus they cut off all human contact, but do not deal with the root issue. They are in bondage to the old nature.
BGT 1 Co. 16:21 Ὁ ἀσπασμὸς τῇ ἐμῇ χειρὶ Παύλου.
This greeting is by my own hand, of Paul.
mark of authenticity
BGT 1 Co. 16:23 ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ μεθ᾽ ὑμῶν.
May the grace of the Lord Jesus be with you.
[this is a prayer to God directed at them, but really to God, who bestows the grace of Jesus through the Spirit. The blessing is a ministerial act asking for God to impart the blessing.
Q: Who do blessings talk to?
What do blessings do?
Who can do blessings?
How do we use the blessing in the worship service?
Is the blessing an element of worship?
BGT 1 Co. 16:24 ἡ ἀγάπη μου μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.
May my love be with all of you in Christ Jesus.
Q: is this a warm thought? Does his love do anything or is it just a proper expression of the endearment he has for them, and word of affectionate love toward them in order to reassure them of his love, and not wrath?
Q: What does it mean when we say I love you?
Q: Why does paul Say I love you in sucha proper and guarded way? [propriety?]